Jacob of Urhoy (Urfa, in Turkey)

Testimonies of the brilliant historians of the Syrian Church of Antioch on the Aramean origin of our nation.

 

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Arameans of Syria.

 

Arameans of Turkey

 

Arameans of Iraq.

 

Question: Who were the ancient Assyrians? Were they simply one ethnicity or a composition of many nations/ tribes?

 

26-6-2007: Aram Nahrin: the Aramaeans, the Bible, Christianity, and the West

 

27-6-2007: Aramaic: the Millennia Long Trajectory of the Global Language

 

28-6-2007: Gabriel Sengo opens the Gates of Aramaean Thought, Culture and Wisdom

 

2-7-2007: Do not Call the Illustrious Nation of Aramaeans by the Misnomer 'Assyrians'!

 

2-7-2007: Extermination of the Aramaean Nation: Results of an Anglo – French Plan

 

(Photo: wikipedia.org)

The Historian Poseidonios from Apamea (ca. 135 BC - 51 BC), was a Greek Stoic philosopher, politician, astronomer, geographer, historian, and teacher. He says: "

"The people we Greek call Syrians, they call themselves Arameans"

From: See J.G. Kidd, Posidonius (Cambridge Classical Texts and Commentaries, 1988), vol. 2, pt. 2, pp. 955-956)

 

(Photo: wikipedia.org)

Strabo (born 63 BC or 64 BC, died ca. 24 AD), a Greek historian, geographer and philosopher is mostly famous for his Geographika ("Geography")

He says: "Poseidonius conjectures that the names of these nations also are akin; for, says he, the people whom we call Syrians are by the Syrians themselves called Arameans."

(From: The Geography of Strabo, translated by Horace Leonard Jones and published in Vol. I of the Loeb Classical Library edition, 1917, Book I, Chapt. 2, 34)

 

(Photo: http://www.ccel.org)

Flavius Josephus (c. 37 – c. 100 AD (or CE)) was a 1st century Jewish historian and apologist of  priestly and royal ancestry who survived and recorded the Destruction of Jerusalem in 70 and later settled in Rome. He says: ""Aram had the Arameans, which the Greeks called Syrians.""

(From: Antiquities of the Jews, translated by William Whiston in 1737, Book I, Chapt. 6)

 

Eusebius of Caesarea (c. 275 – May 30, 339), was a bishop of Caesarea in Palestine and is often referred to as the father of church history because of his work in recording the history of the early Christian church. He says: ""and from Aram the Arameans, which are also called Syrians"

(From: Sebastian Brock, "Eusebius and Syriac Christianity," in Harold W. Attridge and Gohei Hata, eds., Eusebius, Christianity, and Judaism (Leiden 1992), p. 226)

 

Abu Al-husayn 'ali Ibn Al-husayn Al-mas'udi, born 895 in Baghdad [Iraq] and died 957 in al- Fustat [Egypt], was a historian and traveler, known as "the Herodotus of the Arabs.” He was the first Arab to combine history and scientific geography in a large-scale work. On Tur Abdin he says: "Tur Abdin is the mountain where remnants of the Aramean Syrians still survive."

(From: Michael Jan de Goeje: Bibliotheca Geographorum Arabicorum III, Leiden 1906, 54, I)

 

Prof. Dietrich Hermann Hegewisch born Dec. 15, 1746 in Quakenbrück [Germany] and died April 4, 1812 in Kiel, was a prolific german historian at the University of Kiel with a wide span of interests. He says: "Do not the Syrians, as they are usually called, or the Arameans, as they in fact are termed, deserve more attention in world history than they are usually given?"

(From: D.H. Hegewisch: Die Aramäer oder Syrer; ein kleiner Beitrag zur allgemeinen Weltgeschichte, Berlinische Monatschrift, 2, 1794, p. 193)

 

On Page 197 he says: "The names Syria, Assyria, Mesopotamia, Babylon, etc. stem from the Greeks, who were not familiar with the true geography of these lands when the names first started to be used. Later, partly because of continuing ignorance and partly because of convenience despite having accurate knowledge, they persisted in using them since it would have required something of an effort to give up the old, familiar names and divisions of the countries and switch to the new ones, even if they were more accurate. The old, true, and single name of these lands is Aram; it is mentioned numerous times in the Bible of the Old Testament, and Greek scholars were also familiar with it and probably described the population of these areas as Arameans, though seldom, as they usually continued to use the term Syrian, which had been familiar to the Greeks."

 

On page 307 he says: "The Syrians or Arameans were not merely a numerous and large people, they were also a much cultivated people."

 

(Photo: http://portrait.kaar.at)

Prof. Theodor Mommsen born Nov. 30, 1817, Garding, Schleswig [now in Germany] died Nov. 1, 1903, Charlottenburg, near Berlin, was a German historian and writer, famous for his masterpiece about the History of Rome. He received the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1902. He says: "the history of the Aramaean or Syrian nation which occupied the east coast and extended into the interior of Asia as far as the Euphrates and Tigris"

(From: The History of Rome, written between 1854 and 1856, Leipzig, by Theodor Mommsen, Book First, Chapter One)

"the Arameans defended their nationality with the weapons of intellect as well as with their blood against all the allurements of Greek civilization and all the coercive measures of eastern and western despots, and that with an obstinacy which no Indo- Germanic people has ever equalled, and which to us who are Occidentals seems to be sometimes more, sometimes less, than human."

(ibid, Book Third, Chapter One)

 

(Photo: wikipedia.org)

Prof. Theodor Nöldeke born March 2, 1836 in Harburg near Hamburg, died December 25, 1930 in Karlsruhe, was the leading german semitic scholar, who studied at Göttingen, Vienna, Leiden and Berlin. He says: "The main body of the population of all these wide landscapes from the Mediterranean Sea to beyond the Tigris belonged to a certain nationality, that of the Arameans."

(From: Th. Nöldeke: Assyrios Syrios Syros, in Zeitschrift für klassische Philologie, Hermes 5, Berlin 1871, p. 460)

 

On page 461 he says: "It is well understandable that people have started to transfer the name of the country to the most important nationality and so the name 'syrian' was apprehended ethnological and was equated with 'aramaic'."

 

On page 468 he says: "Since the times of Alexander [the Great], if not already somewhat earlier, people have started to transfer the name of the Syrians exclusively over the prevailing in Syria nationality, and in this way this originally political-geographical term became an ethnological one that was identified with the local Arameans."

 

"From the time the Greeks came to have a more intimate acquaintance with Asia, they designated by the name of Syrians, the people who called themselves ´Arameans’.”

 (From: Th. Nöldeke, Kurzgefasste Syrische Grammatik (Leipzig, 1880), p. XXIX)

 

"Regarding the name of this nation and its language is the original 'Aramean’  in essence also the only one [sic], that for the employment of the present-day scholarship as yet strongly fits.” (From: Th. Nöldeke, "Die Namen der aramäischen Nation und Sprache,” in Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenländischen Gesellschaft 25 (1871), p. 131)

 

(Photo: www.doaks.org)

Karl Eduard Sachau born 20 July 1845 and died 1930 was a German orientalist. He was 1872 professor at the University of Vienna, and in 1876, professor at the University of Berlin, where he was appointed director of the new Seminar of Oriental languages in 1887. He is especially noteworthy for his work on Syriac and other Aramaic dialects. He says: "The nation of the Arameans: This national name later, mainly in consequence of Jewish-Christian literature influences, gave way to the Greek designation Syrians."

(From: Verzeichnis der Syrischen Handschriften der königlichen Bibliothek zu Berlin von Eduard Sachau 1. Abteilung, Berlin 1899, Vorrede I)

 

 

 

 

Aramean people: Aramean people (not to be confused with ‘Armenians’) speak Aramaic, the language spoken by Abraham, Moses and Jesus. They are the indigenous people of what was called in ancient times Aram- Nahrin, in our days it is called ‘Mesopotamia’.

Some Arameans today identify themselves with “Assyrians”, because of the spiritual colonial hate generating activities of the Western missionaries and diplomats in the Middle-East in 16th and 19th centuries. Other Arameans became known as “Chaldeans”. However all of them are Arameans.In Turkey, the Arameans are called: Süryani. In Arabic they are called Al- Suryan.


1. What is the different between the "Assyrian" Apostolic Catholic Church of the East and The Church of the East?

Dutch Version

 

These are two different names for the same Church of the East. The term "Assyrian" was added to the (Syrian) Church of the East in 1975 after the assassination of the Patriarch Mar Eshai Shamun XXIII. Regarding this assassination; professor John Joseph says,, The District Attorney further argued that one of the motives in the killing was Assyrian nationalism; he tried to prove that the Assyrian Universal Alliance (AUA) was involved in the assassination" (Professor John Joseph,, The Modern Assyrians of the Middle East”, Encounters with Western Christian Missions, Archaeologists, & Colonial powers” (page 133)

 

After the assassination of Eshai Shamun XXIII; a new patriarch was elected in 1976. His name: Mar Dinkha IV. The same years, thus 1976, the name of the Church has been changed in “Holy Apostolic Catholic Assyrian Church of the East” (http://www.cired.org/). The Patriarch Mar Gewargis Sliwa resides in Baghdad.

 

2. What is the Ancient Church of the east?

 

The Ancient Church of the East was created in 1968 out of the (Syrian) Church of the East as a result of dispute between Mar Thoma Darmo of India and the Patriarch of the Church of the East, Mar Shamun concerning the hereditary succession . In 1968 the Iraqi government allowed Mar Darmo to visit Iraq; after which he began to consecrate bishops and the creation of the Ancient Church of the East was a fact!

The present-day patriarch:  Mar Addai, resident in Baghdad; members: 5 diocese in Iraq and US

 

3. How many so-called "Assyrians" are in Iraq?

 

Because of the vast amount of misinformation spread by fanatics to distort the history of the Indigenous Aramean people in Iraq who became known as,, Assyrian Christians"; in many publication they are talking about 750.000, 1.2 million or even 2.5 million ,, Assyrians". The reality is however that there are no more than 25.000-30.000 ,, Assyrians"  in Iraq. When they say,, Assyrian"; they consider, against their will, all the Christian sects in Iraq as  "Assyrians". This is not only lack of respect towards other Christian (Aramean) denominations; but at the same a big insult to the brilliant scholars of the Syrian (Orthodox) Church of Antioch who all testify about their Aramean roots.

 

Before the invasion of Iraq in 2003, there were around 800.000 Arameans in Iraq. After the invasion, there number start to decrease to below 300.000.

 

4. Who gave them and made them known as,, Assyrian Christians" ?

 

East-Aramean Nestorians: The victims of the Western colonial activities

 

The East- Aramean “Nestorians” were first designated as the Chaldeans; later as Ten Lost Tribes of Israel; and finally as,, Assyrians”.

 

No any historical proof- only assumption based on excavations and "features of affinity" between the east-Aramean Nestorians and the Assyrians of Antiquity.

 

Few examples

 

Dr. Asahel Grant

(17-8-1807 - 25-4-1844)

The East-Aramean Nestorians designated as the Then Lost Tribes of Israel by Asahel Grant

 

GRANT, Asahel, missionary, born in Marshall, Allegheny County, New York, 17 August, 1807; died in Mosul, Asiatic Turkey, 25 April, 1844. He studied medicine, and had acquired a large practice in Utica, New York, when, in 1834, his attention was directed to missionary work. The field of Oroomiah (Urmia), a district in Persia along the Turkish frontier, was selected by him, and in May, 1835, he sailed from Boston, reaching his new home in October. He published "The Nestorians, or the Lost Tribes, with Sketches of Travel in Assyria, Armenia, Media, and Mesopotamia" (London and Boston, 1841). See "Memoir of Asahel Grant, M. D." (New York, 1847)and "Grant and the Nestorians" (Boston, 1853).

(Source http://www.famousamericans.net/asahelgrant/)

Paul-Émile Botta

Born 6 Dec 1802; died 29 Mar 1870

French consul and archaeologist whose momentous discovery of the palace of the Assyrian king Sargon II at Dur Sharrukin (modern Khorsabad), Iraq, initiated the large-scale field archaeology of ancient Mesopotamia.

 

"It was in 1843 when the French Consular agent at Mosul, Paul Emile Botta, began his diggings in Khorsabad, about 12 miles north of Mosul, and uncovered the ruins of the magnificent palace of Sargon II, King of Assyria (722-705 B.C.). That same year the British excavations, under Asutin Henry Layard, discovered the majestic palace of Shalmaneser I (ca. 884-860) with its winged bulls, followed later by that of Ashurbanipal (668-ca 626 B.C.), with his library's vast collection of cuneiform tablets" (page 15)

Austen Henry Layard

( 5-3-1817, died 5-7-1894)

Austen Henry Layard was a British author and diplomatist, best known as the excavator of Nineveh (1843)

 

In his excellent book, Professor John Joseph tells Us about the excavations of Nineveh by Layard,, When the Assyrian excavations revealed the remains of Nineveh to the wondering eyes of the world, the Nestorians and their "Chaldean" brethren in the environs of ancient Assyrian capital and beyond attracted special attention. The hero of these excavations , Austin Henry Layard, hastened to proclaim these historic, linguist and religious minorities to be "as much the remains of Nineveh, and Assyria, as the rude heaps and ruined places. In the midst of this excitement, J.P. Fletcher wrote that "the Chaldeans and the Nestorians" are "the only surviving human memorial of Assyria and Babylonia"

 

"While the name Chaldean was already, as we have seen, appropriated by those Nestorians who had embraced Roman Catholicism, the illustrious twin name 'Assyrians' was eventually adopted by the Nestorians as a name for themselves " (page 17 of the book)

Rev. J.P Fletcher

 

 

On page 21 we read about J.P.Flethchers view regarding the linkage between the ancient Assyrians and the east-Arameans nestorians of Mosul: ,,Those who have studied with care the sculptural representations of the ancient Assyrians and compared with the modern inhabitants of the plain of Nineveh, can hardly fail to trace the strong features of affinity which exist between the robed monarchs and priests of early days and the Christians peasants of the plain of Mosul" (page 21)

Edward White Benson (1829-1896);

Archbishop of Canterbury (1883- 1896)

Archbishop of Canterbury's Assyrian mission

 

The Anglican missionaries started their mission activities among the East-Aramean "Nestorians"  as from 1887-1890 and 1890- 1915. This mission was called,, The Archbishop of Cantebury's Assyrian Mission". Initially it meant the Christians of geographical Assyria. These Christians of geographical Assyria became later known as,, Assyrian Christians" or "Christian Assyrians". And this has resulted in the present-day fanaticism among the East- Arameans "Nestorians" who even do not hesitate to falsify documents and historical facts.

 

Regarding the view of Archbishop Benson in relation to the "Assyrians"; page 19, footnote 68 of the book of John Joseph tells us,, Maclean and Browne, p.6. See also Coakley, p. 147, where he quotes Maclean sayin “there is really as far as I know no proof that they [‘the Syrian Christians’] had any connection with the Old Assyrians. One of the few Anglicans who did use the term Assyrian was the Archbishop of Canterbury Benson,but that is a fad of His Grace, as no one else”, wrote one of the missionaries quoted by Coakley” 

 

The Rev. William Ainger Wigram (1872-1953) Archbishop of Canterbury's Mission to Assyria.

"The assumption that the Nestorians were descendants of the ancient Assyrians found a great advocate in the Anglican missionary W.A. Wigram, who in his post-world War I books, The assyrians and their Neighbours, and Ours smallest Ally, popularized the name Assyrian and familiarized the world with the tragedy that had befallen these "descendants of Shalmaneser" (Page 19)

 

5. What is the link between the modern "Assyrians" and the Assyrians of the antiquity- historical proof?

 

Page 19, footnote 68 of the book of John Joseph says,, Maclean and Browne, p.6. See also Coakley, p. 147, where he quotes Maclean saying “there is really as far as I know no proof that they [‘the Syrian Christians’] had any connection with the Old Assyrians.

 

Page 29, footnote 94 of the same book says,, In a letter to the author, dated June 11, 1997, Patricia Crone wrote that she and Cook "Do not argue that the Nestorians of pre-Islamic saw themselves as Assyrians or that this is what they called themselves. They called themselves Suryane, which had no greater connation of Assyrian in their usage than it did in anyone else's  …. We take it for granted that they [Nestorians] got the modern Assyrian label from the West and proceed to reinvent themselves.. Of course the Nestorians were Arameans"

Of course, we have also to keep in mind that the famous Scholars of the Syrian Church of Antioch all of them testify of their Aramean heritage.

 

This is in fact only the problem of the Western "scientists". It has to do with their games to play with our cultural heritage. These materialistic, arrogant and politicized  "scholars" consider themselves so wise and superior that they have imposed fake names onto our nation. If these blind "professors" would have given attention to the ancient Aramean scholars; they would understand they are no match for this historians and would respect the Aramean origin of our Nation.

They come up with, by themselves invented nonsense like "nobody is pure and northern Iraq has been melting pot of many nations.". Well it can be! But we have historians of our West-Syrian as well as East-Syrian Church who were much more close to the history and had better access to the documents than you have; so why don't you listen to them and behave a bit modest and pay them some respect? You invent myths and legends behind your luxury desks and sell to the public as "history."

 

6. “Assyrian Christians”; indigenous people of Iraq?

 

Regularly we read in publications that the “Assyrian” Christians are the indigenous people of Iraq. This is however not correct! The “Assyrian” Christians are a product of the Western missionaries who came to the middle-east in the 19th century and have brainwashed the Aramean tribes of Urmia (Iran) and Hakkaria (bordering Turkey-Syria) to see themselves as ,, Assyrian” in stead of Aramean. These Aramean tribes prefer since then to call themselves ,, Assyrians” and try by all means possible to force this fake identity onto other Aramean tribes by spreading overwhelming biased information regarding the origin of our people.

 


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Arabic Translations: 

 الترجمات العربية

 

How "Assyrian" fanaticism resulted in terrorism.

 

Who made the East- Aramean Nestorians known as "Assyrians"?

 

 

6-9-2014: Why are modern “Assyrians” very important to the illuminati Satanists?

 

21-2-2014: The origin of “Assyrian” fanaticism, their blindness, veneration of occult powers

 

Professor Dr. John Joseph.

5-7-2008: Assyria and Syria: Synonyms?

In a letter to the author (John Joseph), dated June 11, 1997, Patricia Crone wrote that she and Cook  “do not argue that the Nestorians of pre-Islamic Iraq saw themselves as Assyrians or that this is what they called themselves. They called themselves Suryane, which had no greater connotation of Assyrian in their usage than it did in anyone else…. We take it for granted that they got the modern Assyrian label from the West and proceeded to reinvent themselves… Of course the Nestorians were Arameans.”

(Page 27, footnote 94)

 

Professor Dr. Muhammad Shamsaddin Megalommatis

28-6-2004: Progenitor of Wars and Tyrannies: the Falsehood of Pan-Arabism

The deep and hidden reason of the tyrannical oppression practiced throughout the Middle East is the imposition by France and England of pan-Arabic nationalist cliques that intend to dictatorially arabize the various peoples of the Middle East, who are – all – not Arabs

 

10-8-2005: The Aramaeans' rise will transfigure the Middle Eastern Chessboard

 

The basic fact is that all these populations are only Arabic – speaking; they are not Arabs. Their ethnic historical identity is Aramaic. Aramaeans are Semitic, but as distant from the Arabs as the Ancient Hebrews were from the Babylonians. For reasons we are going to explain, these Aramaean populations got gradually arabized, but the arabization phenomenon took place at the linguistic level only, not at the ethnic, national, cultural levels

 

Out of it, colonial missionaries, political agents, and diplomats made a huge lie (namely that these Aramaeans are not Aramaeans but 'Assyrians') with which they disconnected the Nestorian Aramaeans from their Aramaic identity

 

18-12-2008: Syriacs, "Assyrians" and "Chaldaeans" are all Aramaeans

 

What is the correct national name of the Modern Aramaeans? Why are there Aramaeans, who despite the fact that they speak Aramaic, insist on calling themselves 'Assyrians'? Why other Aramaeans stick to a third name, 'Chaldaeans'? Is it proper to use the name 'Syriac' that usually describes a late form of Aramaic language and scripture (from which Arabic derived) as national name of the Aramaeans?

 

16-12-2008: Pseudo-Assyrians, Pseudo-Chaldaeans, and the Cultural – National Needs of the Aramaean Nation

 

Contrarily to the farfetched – and well financed – inaccuracies of Simo Parpola, there is not a single element in the defunct before 2600 years Assyrian Cultural and National Heritage to resemble in anything with the genuinely Aramaean culture of today’s Aramaeans, irrespective of the appellation that they use to designate themselves, Aramaeans, Chaldaeans, Assyrians or Zulu.............

 

Patriarch Emmanuel III Delly

28-10-2008: “...but I would like to state that we, the Chaldean, Assyrian and Syrian people are one people called Aramean

 

13-5-2006: Is there an Assyrian cause in Iraqi Kurdistan?

 

But this claim has been researched by historians, and concluded that people in middle East mostly refer to people to their region, like someone from Kirkuk, was named Kirkuki whether he was , Kurd, Turkmen or Aramean. So is the case with Assyrians or actually the “Athuris” that is how they are called in the region. That name is been used to label the Nestorian Arameans of Athur(Asur) region at the suburbs of Mosul. The term has no any relation with the ancient Assyrians and the modern Assyrians

 

2-8-2005: IRAQ's Modern History. The Arab Majority and The Minorities

 

As for the terms "Assyrians" and "Chaldaeans," which are used to describe non-Arab Christians (other than Armenians), there is absolutely no historical reference of their association with the Assyrians and Chaldaeans of ancient Mesopotamia

 

“The Church of the East and the Church of England: A History of the Archbishop of Canterbury's Assyrian Mission “ is the title of the book written by J.F. Coakley and published in 1992.

 

On page 147 Coackly reports about a dispute between Arthur Maclean, head of the Archbishop of Canterbury's Assyrian Mission from 1886 to 1891, and Hormuzed Rassam, the brother of Christian Antun (Isa) Rassam; a Chaldean family from Mosul. We read: “As he (Maclean) insisted, the ‘Syrians’ called themselves that, never ‘Assyrians’; …… to apply the name ‘Assyrians’ to these Eastern Syrian Christians appears to me either an error, or else pedantry. There is really as far as I know no proof that they had any connection with the Old Assyrians. ....... .....  Why should we invent a name when we have such a very convenient one, used for centuries, at our hand? I can understand that one living close to the ruins of Nineve should have a fit enthusiasm of Old Assyria; but is it common sense to cast aside a name used by the people themselves, and to invent another for them of very doubtful applicability?